Posted by: lrrp | May 29, 2008

Under the Portuguese Rule

1505 Arrival of Portugese – 15th Nov’1505 – The most unpleasent race that ever discovered power in one brief moment in history. After evaluating the situation, Portugese plan to grab international trade from the Muslims Don Lourenco De Almeida arrives in Colombo by accident, Sinhalese see Cannons, wine, bread for the 1st time. They are taken to Kotte taking 3 days to cover 6 miles. They will in the coming years will exploit Lankans into the depths of infamy, & leave a story of shameful sadism & cruelty the Lankans have never heard of before in rulers of Lanka. Their behaviour creates a continuous dislike of the whiteman within Sinhalese who will lose all they were ever proud of, including the good priciples of life which made Sinhalese a distinctive race. Portugese will first appear as merchants, then as fanatical cruel missionaries who will shock Lankans (who have a certain impression on religiuos monks), then finally they turn to trade again. In a remarkable feat, with only a population of only 1 million in Portugal, they rule Asia, Brazil and west Africa.
1509 Britain, still an umimportant country, support reformists as Pope refuse divorce of queen by the king,Henry the 8th Henry VIII, was crowned in 1509. Notorious in the popular imagination for his six wives, he was most important for initiating the separation from the papacy(Roman Catholic church led by the Pope in Vetican) which ultimately brought England into the Protestant camp—a result of his first divorce from Catherine of Aragon. When the pope refused to terminate the marriage, Henry broke with the papacy, declared himself head of the Church in England and arranged to have the divorce sanctioned. Henry did not want to introduce Protestantism and the Church of England retained many elements of Roman Catholic practice, prompting criticism later in the century from the Protestant faction known as the Puritans. However, Henry adopted some reforms that accorded with Protestant belief, notably the abolition of the monasteries.
1512 Portugese return as a Trade Delegation offering what Muslims cant offer to Sinhalese They express interest in trade, mainly cinnamon, which the Moors control, but offers protection to King which moors haven’t done. They also build a fort in Colombo.
1513 Lankan Muslim traders entice First Sinhalese Battle against Portugese King Vijayabahu in Kotte is turned against Portugese by the Moors who do want to see losing the trade. On their advise king check with the Indian chiefs in Culcutta, India who are battling the Portugese how to destroy them in battle. Sinhala war to destroy Colombo fort is unsuccessful as they lose the battle.
1519 Sangili, son of Jaffna ruler’s mistress become the rebel Jaffna ruler by crafty means Sangili, a crafty youngman, son of the mistress of the rebel Jaffna king ParaRajasekeram-6 ( Tamil rebels survived in Jaffna as Sinhala king had no strength to wage a war to subdue them due to bad economy), after court conspiracies , kills 3 sons of the 2 queens ( 2 are stabbed, one is poisoned) & then make peace with the last son saying that they should not be infighting as Vanni Tamils who are awaiting for an opportunity to grab the Jaffna sub-kingdom, make him his prime minister,
1521 Vijayaba Kollaya – Foolish & selfish Power games weaken Kotte as it is divided into 3 – Portugese are laughing When King Jijayaba in Kotte, tries to make the son of his 2nd queen the king, 3 sons of the 1st queen , obtain help from king Jayavira, ruler of Kandy, to kill the father & devide Kotte into 3 separate kingdoms ( eldest in Kotte, 2nd in Raigama, 3rd ( Mayadunne )in Sitawaka. Kandy ruler help them so that a weakened Kotte is no threat to him. But it gives Portugese the opportunity to take advantage of a weak Kotte.
1521 Weakened & Insecure Kotte produces the Greatest Sinhala King Traitor in Lankan history Buvanekabahu-7 in Kotte whose lust for power and the insecurity between Mayadunne & the Portugese, will end him up being a poor, weak, puppet of the Portugese who is detested by the people.
1522 Mayadunne’s military build-up alarms Kandy & Kotte Other 2 kings are warned and alarmed at daring,& ambitious Mayadunne. Their insecurity is promptly attended to by Portugese. Eldest brother Buvanekabahu-7 in Kotte, and King Jayavira in Kandy both become friends with Portugese.
1522 A shameful appeal for protection – The culture of appealing to Sudda to come and save the ruling class, begins. It continue even today. The opportunity Portugese were waiting for. Insecure kings of Kotte & Kandy, both ask for Portugese protection against rising Mayadunne. The culture of appealing to Sudda to come and save the ruling class, begins. It continue even today.
1522 Catholic priests get to interior for the 1st time. Portugese take max advantage. A Portugese unit is permanently stationed in Kandy. Catholic priests get access to Kandy for the 1st time.
1522 Mayadunne checks how the Indians fight the Portugese Mayadunne establish relationship with Chiefs in Culcutta,india who are fighting the Portugese.
1524 Seeing no immediate need, Portugal dismantle the Fort to fool Kotte & Kandy. ( It’ll be rebuilt in 2 yrs) On advice received from Portugal, the fort is dismantled by the Portugese as a gesture of not having any intention to grab the country. But continue in trade with vigour.
1525 Portugese tries friendship tactic with Mayadunne to neutralise his military build-up After so many attempts Portugese establish friendship with Mayadunnes who they see as the biggest threat and the one who has the potential to be most powerful.
1526 Last Muslim power to raid India – Mughals ( descendants of Genghis Khan) from Turkey take Delhi Mughal Empire, Indian empire which-in actuality or in name-ruled the subcontinent for over 300 years (1526-1857), with a brief interregnum under the Sur sultans (1540-1555). Of these three centuries, for some 150 years (1556-1707), under Akbar and his immediate successors, Jahangir, Shah Jahan, and Aurangzeb, the empire enjoyed a notably strong and efficient administration.Mughals were the last of several Muslim invaders of India. They were Turkish in origin, descended from the Mongol horde of Genghis Khan, and had adopted elements of Persian culture on their long migration to India. Led by Babur, they conquered Delhi in 1526.
1526 Having lost trade monopoly to Portugese, Muslims try enticing Sinhalese to fight Portugese who has built the fort again Within 2 years, Portugese rebuild the fort in Colombo as Moors rise up in protest of losing their business. Portugese get Kotte king to stick with the Portugese. Moors side with the Sitawaka & Raigama kings.
1534 Jesuits are formed to spearhead the conter-reformation The Counter-Reformation was sped up by Roman Catholic church to reassert traditional doctrine, reform the hierarchy, improve the work of the parish clergy, and set up new missionary societies. The most famous new order was the Jesuits, or Society of Jesus, founded by Ignatius Loyola in 1534. At the Council of Trent (1545-1563), the tenets of the Catholic Church were powerfully restated. Spearheaded by the Jesuits, the Church was able to recapture much lost ground in Europe, and it took the message to other parts of the world in the wake of European discovery and conquest.
1538 Mayadunnes annexes Raigama when king dies When his brother in Raigama dies, Mayadunne expresses will to annex Raigama. Eldeast brother in Kotte gives consent in order to win Mayadunne’s friendship.
1539 Kotte ask Portugese HELP when Mayadunne attacks Mayadunne try waging war against Kotte, which brings Portugese in to keep the promise to help Kotte. He should have won the war, if not for the superior firepower of the Portugese.
1539 Mayadunne betray the Indian troops to Portugese in a shameful manner – similar to what IPKF experienced in 1989. Indians will not help Lanka again In order to stop Portugese advance into Sitawaka, Mayadunne agrees to give the heads of the leader of Malabar troops & the other good miliatry commanders to Portugeese who abandone their advance and return to Colombo. This end support from Culcutta who express the disgust of what happenbed to their troops.
1540 Another shameful appeal for protection – The culture of appealing to Sudda to come and save the ruling class continue even today. Buvanekabahu-7 in Kotte, has only a daughter, SamudraDevi,(by the chief queen) who is married to VidiyaBandara. They have a young son named Dharmapala. As he is too small, the throne should go to his brother, Mayadunne. But Buvanekabahu-7 sends envoys to Lisbon in Portugal seeking Portugal king’s guarantee that his grandson become the king in Kotte. This new ruling class will always run to the Europeans asking for help to survive.
1541 Mayadunne wins parts of Kotte by enticing chiefs After losing the support in Culcutta, he wins large parts of Kotte by winning over vallage chiefs.
1543 Portugal take maximum advantage – in return for giving protection to the ruling class, they build churches, start converting people, send catholic missioneries King Joao-3 of Portugal declares that the throne of Lanka, must go from the grandfather to the grandson. This makes people very angry with the king in Kotte. When Portugal sends Catholic monks to Kotte & starts building churches, & started converting people. Their motto is to begin by preaching then use the sword. King does not want to be Catholic as that would end his last remaining popularity among the people. Portugease try hard and strong. King start to have problems with Portugese. King make new allaiance with Mayadunne against Portugese.
1544 Portugese now eye for the trade in the North – War between Portugese & Jaffna Rebel Tamils begin Portugese want the trade between the west coast of India & to Lanka, and the pearl fishery in Mannar. They start by bringing Missionaries in India to Mannar. They convert fisherfolk to Catholism. Rebel Jaffna Tamil king is furiuos as not only the trade but also the religion is threatened.
1544 Portugese mission get massacred Jaffna rebel army masacres the mission.
1545 Kotte & Sitawaka try to take Kandy to stop a possible pact between Kandy & Portugese – Such infighting will weaken Sinhalese Realising that Portugese will side with the Kandy, Kotte- Siatawaka in combine forces attack Kandy, King Jayawira seek help from Portugese, As their help is late, he make peace with the attackers. Many more such confrontations, mostly created by cunning Portugese, will weaken Sinhalese so much that they will not be able to face any invader.
1546 Kotte join Portugese due to mistrust with Sitawaka- & attack on Kandy fails The mistrust between Sitawaka & Kotte, run them into a race to win the Portugese over. Kotte is quicker. Portugese insist Kotte to attack Kandy. Combine forces of Kotte & Portugese invade Kandy. But the behaviuor of the Portugese troops & commanders who harass & demand the people, create bitterness between Kotte & the Portugese.
1551 Buvanekabahu is assasinated by Portugese – “a bullet fired to a bird hits the king” Having used him for the maximum extent, the bullet of a Portugese soldier who fired at a bird, hit the king in his pavillion built over Kelani river. This made Viceroy in Goa to visit Lanka to plan the future set up under a young puppet king. First step would be an invasion of Sitawaka.
1551 Mayadunne withdraws from Sitawaka as Kotte ( led by VidiyeBandara) & Portugese( led by Viceroy of India himself) power attack Unable to withstand the firepower of Portugese who invade under the leadership of Viceroy from India, & kotte army under Vidiye Bandara , father of king Dharmapala, Mayadunne flees to the mountains in Deraniyagala. Viceroy notice the potential of VidiyaBandara for the first time, and before leaving for India advises Portugese officials to assasinate him.
1552 Coup in Kandy brings King’s son to the throne, King runs to Sitawaka King Jayavira’s eldst son Karaliyadde Bandara, becomes king. King Jayavira move to Sitawaka for protection.
1553 Vidiye Bandara escapes from Portugese Vidiya Banda turns to Catholism to win Portugese, but is arrested. He escapes from Prison & starts a rebellion.
1553 Foolish Mayadunne chooses to destroy VidiyeBandara instead of destroying the Portugese A vigourous campaign see Portugese driven all the way to the coast. But Mayadunne become alarmed by VidiyeBandara’s potential & decide to destroy him.
1555 End of Vidiye-Bandara- Selfish Mayadunne joins Portugese to destroy Vidiye_Bandara This makes Sitawaka the most powerful kingdom in Lanka. Rajasinghe, 16 year old son of Mayadunne leads a battle against Vidiye-Bandara at Palanda. Vidiye-Bandara flees to Jaffna King where he is killed in a quarrell. His possessions, including gems & treasures are kept by the Jaffna king.
1556 Mughal empire set one of the finest examples of religious & cultural tolerance, which is the basis for policies of India today The Mughal Empire thrived under Akbar the Great (1556-1605), who conquered Bengal, Kashmir, and Sind. He was a wise emperor and issued an Edict of Toleration embracing all the diverse races and religions of the subcontinent. He himself married a Hindu Rajput princess. Interested in ideas, he invited Hindus, Muslims, and Christians to debate in his presence in a “Parliament of Religions” to which ambassadors came from the court of Elizabeth I. His political reforms were so effective that elements survive today in the provincial governments of India and Pakistan. The Mughals adopted Indian customs, resulting in a mingling of Persian and Indian cultures, and the evolution of a new tongue, Urdu. The most impressive results of this fusion are seen in Mughal painting, glass, and carpets—and most famously in the architecture of the Taj Mahal, a mausoleum built during the reign of Shah Jahan, grandson of Akbar.
1557 Portugese confiscate properties of temples & Mayadunne battles Portugese again Portugese convert Darmapala into Catholism & he confiscate properties of Buddhists & Hindu temples & enraging the people. Mayadunne takes opportunity to attack.
1558 Rise of Britain as a super-power under Queen Elizabeth as William Shakespeare writes his plays of patriotism Half sister of Bloody Mary, Elizabeth came to the throne in 1558, most of England was willing to embrace Protestantism; those who refused faced persecution and, frequently, death. Elizabeth I was one of the country’s greatest rulers. During her long reign, she generally managed to steer a middle course between Catholic and Protestant rivalries on mainland Europe, providing a stable environment for the growth of English business and trade. Win over Spanish fleet In 1588 England’s status as a European superpower was confirmed. During the reign of Elizabeth, William Shakespeare began his remarkable career. Many of Shakespeare’s historical plays are rife with fervent patriotic sentiment
1560 Portugese returns in force to take jaffna & Kandy army helps Jaffna King of Kandy sends army of 10,000 led by Mudaliar Atapattu, to Jaffna to help the Tamil king. Portugese retreat.
1561 Rajasinghe wins Battle Of Mulleriyawa 24 year old Rajasinghe win the battle of Mulleriyawa.
1564 Rajasinghe forces Portugese to abandone Kotte Due to unbearable casualty rate , Portugese withdraws to Colombo with Darmapala.
1565 Muslims destroy the Hindu capital VijayaNagar in South India.
1565 War almost won by Mayadunne Portugese would lose the fort of Colombo, if not for the cannon power.
1574 Using the ego of Rajasinghe as a weakness, Portugese manages to divert his attention to attack Kandy instead of Portugese Portugese arrange the marriage between Darmapala & a Kandyan bride who was refused to Rajasinghe previuosly, foolish Rajasighe reacts as expected by the Portugese by attacking Kandy. Portugese take advantage & deploy troops all along the coastal belt, destroying everyone against them. Kelaniya temple, Munnesvaram kovil are destroyed. Navypower enable them to swiftly move along the coast. They make paddyfields wastelands, and take cattle. They build new forts including in Galle. They qucikly win chiefs in Trinco, Batti, and Puttalam.
1578 Rajasinghe captures Balana In his angry obsession to teach Kandy a lesson he forget the Portugese activity along the coast.
1579 Foolish Rajasinghe is forced to abandon Kandy campaign & battle Portugese again. Portugese activity in the coastal areas force Rajasinghe to abandon war on Kandy. He is successful this time as well.
1580 Portugese under seige Rajasinghe effectively keeps the fort surrounded. He cant break it due to cannon power.
1581 Rajasinghe loses Bikkus blessings & is quickly turned into Hinduism by Tamil friends People get sick of continuous war, and heavy taxes, and arrogance and the ruthlessness of Rajasinghe who is suspected to have his own father killed. He loses the blessings of MahaSangha due to unfair and cruel reactions. He find he is welcome in Hindu religion.
1580 Rajasinghe takes Kandy His attack sees Kandyan Royal family fleeing to Trinco where the king dies of small-pox.
1581 Portugese gets reinforcements & breaks seige in Colombo Portugese Naval power brings in re-inforcements from Goa. Rajasinghe withdraws to Kaduwela where he builds a fort. But Portugese do not have enough manpower to reach Kaduwela.
1581 Portugese Military HQ at Biyagama. Portugese move their military HQ to Biyagama, 10 miles from Colombo in order to have better defence.
1581 Rajasinghe become king Rumour has it that he poisoned his father to death, which deprived him of the support of MahaSangha.
1582 Portugese strenthen the walls of Colombo Fearing another attack Portugese goes on another project to strenthen defences, but no attack happens.
1582 Rajasinghe’s unconventional economic tactics Cinnomon, the highest export income generator, is stored in Royal-warehouses & sold to traders. Rajasinghe burn extra stock to increase the prices to get more income for the war.
1587 Rajasinghe almost win Colombo again, But lack of Navy power allows reinforcements Portugese under seige resort to cannibalism, by pickling the dead mates. But he lacks Navy to prevent reinforcement coming in.
1588 A foolish kandy rebellion saves Portugese who breaks seige in Colombo again Konappu Bandara,(son of a Kandy chief slain by Rajasinghe), rises up in rebellion to grab Kandy from Sitawaka. As Rajasinghe moves to Kandy , Portugese break seige, and take Biyagama, Kaduwela & finally Sitawaka.
1588 British Navy become the masters of the sea by beating the Spanish Navy. Spanish Navy’s disaster ensure Britain becoming a superpower The Spanish Armada was a substantial invasion fleet dispatched by Philip II of Spain in May 1588 against England. The 130 ships, carrying almost 30,000 men were sighted in the English Channel at the end of July, and after some indecisive skirmishes with the English, they anchored off Calais. Lord Howard, the English commander, then sent fireships among the Armada, which caused complete panic. In the ensuing engagement the Spanish were routed and forced to flee north around the coast of Scotland. Many galleons were wrecked, due to foul weather and the rocky coasts of Scotland and Ireland: out of a total of 130 vessels, only 67 eventually returned to port. In 1588 Philip II of Spain sent a huge fleet to attack England, but the English fleet, helped by the superior manoeuvrability of their smaller ships, excellent seamanship, and the luck of stormy seas, scattered the Spanish Armada. England’s status as a European superpower was confirmed.
1591 Last Battle in Jaffna – Portugese vs. Sinhala & Tamil armies near a huge dagaba in Atchchuveli- Sinhala troops, including POWs, are massacred Portugese return & take Jaffna, killing Tamil king. They masacre at least 5000 Sinhala troops along with the Mudaliar Atapattu. Portugese will control trade of pearl fisheries, elephants, and free access to east & west coasts of India.Tamil christian community in Jaffna is their strong base support. In 1770, Phillipus Baldaeus-a Dutch living in Jaffna for 9 years speaks of a great pagoda in Atchuveli, where the Portugese army beat the Last Sinhala army unit in the peninsula.
1591 Kandy rebuilt as a military garrison King ViamalaDarma Suriya, builds a massive wall around the city of Kandy with 18 tower structures.
1593 Death of Rajasinghe – Last King of Military success- He has killed all possible leaders While on the way from the failed Kandy mission to Sitawaka, he dies of sepsis caused by a bamboo splinter peircing his foot. His ruthlessness in killing anyone of potential leadership , make a leadership vacuum after his death.
1593 Vimaladarmasuriya marries Pandyan kings daughter
1594 Only 2 powers in Lanka Kandy under VimalaDarmaSuriya, and the Coast under Portugese.
1594 De Souza’s mission to Kandy Portugese take Kusumasana Devi , now a Catholic as Dona Catherina, to make her Kandyan ruler, But VimalaSurendra destroy the large force , & captures her & marries her spoiling the plan.
1594 Major Revolt against Portugese by Akaragama Appuhamy- But local Catholics side with Portugese Ruthlessness of officials, demands for services & goods, land policy, Threat to Buddhism by the expanding Christianity & catholics who always side with the Portugese & betray any struggle for justice, hostility to foreign rule become major reasons.
1594 Major Revolt against Portugese by Edirille Rala Continue for 3 years before being crushed.Ruthlessness of officials, demands for services & goods, land policy, Threat to Buddhism by the expanding Christianity & catholics who always side with the Portugese & betray any struggle for justice, hostility to foreign rule become major reasons.
1595 Sitawaka crumbles within 2 years of Rajasinghe’s death Portugese take permanent control of Sitawaka, as a general Manamperi deserted to the Portugese.
1595 Tooth Relic is brought to Kandy from Hiding King VimalaDarmaSuriya get the tooth relic from it’s hiding in a temple in Delgamuwa, in Kuruvita, and place it in a 2-storeyed temple in Kandy.
1597 27th May, 1597 – Kotte fall under Portugese as Darmapala dies, Sinhalese has nomore craftsmen to repair the looted monuments, Portugese also use cast tactics and religion to create collaborating families. Dying childless king Darmapala write the kingdom of Kotte to Protugal. Within 2 days of his death, DonJerenimo De azavedu, Portugese commander in Colombo invite the offcials of Kotte & force them to take an oath of allegiance to Portugal. They continue to blast temples & statues for treasures. Sinhalese has no skilled craftsmen left to repair them due to centuries of inactivity. Portugese relies on the tax collection & administration system to rule as Portugese do not show admin skill at all. They use the caste system to rule over Sinhalese by giving trade adminstration to the high caste families who will bebefit from the trade. They are encouraged to turn Catholism. Those who follow these rules are rewarded with official jobs and trade powers & some families take advantage.
1597 Cruelty & Sadism become a way of the ruler – a tradition repeated in the suppression of Sinhala political opponents in the 1980s Portugese let loose free their inhuman terror on gentle population who has no one to turn to. Many villagers left for montains infested with beasts, saying the human beast in Portugese is more cruel than the beasts in the jungle who kill only for hunger. Both the poor soldiers, high ranking officers, officials rob, rape & commit adultary at free will which shocks the villagers who continue to have resentment of the white man. The infamous acts are recorded by a visiting Portugese writer Faria Sousa.
1598 Portugese General De Azevedu has a bad dream After capturing a desrted Kandy, He is disturbed by the dream of seeing a light rising up from the east, and it’s getting bigger & bigger enveloping Colombo.
1598 Azavedu creates garrison of Balana Azavedu leads army to Kandy , and burn King’s palace , but he realized that he doesn’t have manpower to hold on to and to help the garrison in case of a seige.. He badly want to take Kandy.But he is forced to leave it.
1598 Azavedu’s Torture HQ at Malwana – Sinhalese are shocked, & get used to it learning it as a tool to stay in power He has Hq here where he hold judiciary court, establish huge elephant stables to be traded, He throws prisoners live to the crocodile at the same place so that crocodiles gather looking for food, He chop lims off women and childdren alive, ask mothers to hold their babies in hand while torturing them to death, He crush mothers and children together between huge rocks. All these never before unseen cruelty in Lanka shock the Sinhala people,
1602 Dutch come to see the king Joris Silbergen come to see the king I Kandy.
1603 Angry of humiliation, Kandy King kills Dutch in their flagship King vimaladarmasuriya, kills the Dutch admiral Sebald De Weert & several Dutch troops when he is insulted by the drunk admiral, after being invited into the flagship.
1603 Revolt against Portugese by Kangara Arachchi Ruthlessness of officials, demands for services & goods, land policy, Threat to Buddhism by the expanding Christianity & catholics who always side with the Portugese & betray any struggle for justice, hostility to foreign rule become major reasons.
1603 Revolt against Portugese by Kuruvita Rala Ruthlessness of officials, demands for services & goods, land policy, Threat to Buddhism by the expanding Christianity & catholics who always side with the Portugese & betray any struggle for justice, hostility to foreign rule become major reasons.
1604 King VimalaDarma Suriya dies
1615 Portugese increase the demand for cinamon four times Portugese increase the amount of cinnamon a family should supply to them from 100,000 pounds to 460,000 pounds. People become very unhappy about this labour-exploitation.
1615 Portugese go on the offensive to stop all coastal foreign trade With instruction from Goa to stop sinhala trade happening thru Trinco, Batti, Jaffna, Portuse launch new operation. In January they take Gampola, Maturata, Badulla, In August, they take Tumpane, Matale, Harispattuva.
1616 Revolt by Nikapitiye Bandara & Kandy king’s betrayal in War A prince from Sitawaka, famous for wisdom & insight & courage, related to several past kings, is organizing people to unite the country. He is supported by Kandy at first. But foolish King Senerat in Kandy stops support after a disagreement. Then He is easily defeated & beheaded by Portugese.
1616 Kuruvita Rala wage a revolt again Ruthlessness of officials, demands for services & goods, land policy, Threat to Buddhism by the expanding Christianity & catholics who always side with the Portugese & betray any struggle for justice, hostility to foreign rule become major reasons.
1617 Selfish King Senerat makes peace pact– Shameful “You rule there, I’ll rule here” concept become official & normal On a treaty King Senerath hold on to Trinco, Batti, and Panama by paying an annual tax to Portugese including 2 elephants a year. In return they recognise King Senerat as ruler of Kandy while Portugese are recognized as the rulers of the maritime districts..
1619 Revolt in Jaffna against Portugese, is crushed. After this Portugese decides to rule Jaffna permanantly Jaffna Tamils, majority of whom are the poorest in the country, being angry of the threat to the culture, religion, and power in the hands of Catholics, & about losing business with the trade with tanjore, rise up in revolt led by Cankili-2 who seek the support of the Kandy and the Dutch, He get 5 armed ships from calicut, india who attack Portuges ships. But it is crushed & Cankili-2 is captured & executed in Colombo.
1619 Portugese annex Jaffna Kandy loses an ally as Jaffna fall totally under the rule of Portugese.
1621 Revolt in Jaffna against Portugese
1621 Portugese build forts in Kalutara, Trinco, Batty, Galle, Manikkadawara, & Colombo.
1624 Tamils rebuild koneswaram temple in Trinco The date of original Koneswaram temple is recorded in a Tamil poem by Kavi Rajavarothiar as being 1589 BC. King Kulakottan, a South Indian prince rebuilt and enlarged this temple in the 5th century AD. Fort Frederick, where the temple is situated, was built with sculptured stones and pillars of the Koneswaram temple in 1624 AD, after the temple was demolished by the Portuguese commander Constantine de Sa. The current Koneswaram temple was first consecrated in 1963, about three hundred and thirty nine years after its destruction.
1626 Moors are protected by King Senerath The Moors whose trade is taken by force & who are given an option to leave or die, appealed to the King of Kandy, Senerath who resettle them in Batticaloa.
1628 Portugese break pact by taking Trinco & Batti King Senerath is too weak to challenge as powerul Portugese go on taking over.
1629 Drawing lots to see who will rule Kandy King Senerath get his 3 sons to draw lots by writing down 3 provinces & placing them near the tooth relic, ask 3 sons to draw lots. Eldest get Uva, next gets Matale, 3rd ( MahaASthana)gets the 5 highland provinces that include Kandy.
1630 Randenigala – Biggest military victory against Portugese. Constanini DE Sa Noronha, Viceroy himself lead the enemy force & is wiped out by the Sinhala army. Even the Viceroy is killed.
1635 Rajasinghe -2 : last Lankan king to resist Westerners, He learns to match the westerners with cruelty, shrewdness, crafty, double dealing, hypocratic diplomacy. But his ego & the pride fails him Youngest son Rajasinghe become king after Senerath, is a powerful, strong individual who will continue to dominate his 2 elder brothers. But his combined efforts against the common enemy brings so much success. He is the last Lankan king to resist & to detest Westerners. He was also the last king to at least try to match the westerners with cruelty, shrewdness, crafty, double dealing, hypocratic diplomacy. But the game is finally won by the Dutch who used his weaknesses of the ego and the pride to achieve their goal whenever they needed..
1638 Battle of Gannoruwa The Portugese led by captain Diego De Mello, who occupied & destroyed Kandy is surrounded & killed.
1638 Arrival of the Dutch (who has the largest merchant fleet in the world)- has latest & superior equipment, arms & ammo than Portugese. They introduce humble & cunning tactics, & use Lanka with a mean heart. They fool Sinhalese who judge people on what they say and do. Three Sinhale send envoys to Goa, and several Dutch messengers landed in the east coast. The treaty was a mutually beneficial one. Dutch insist on on monopoly of spice trade, specially cinnamon. Sinhala king also to reimberse the cost of the war back to the Dutch over the years. Sinhalas are desperate to make the deal which is more beneficial to Dutch. Dutch has the largest merchant fleet in the world. Latest & superior equipment, arms & ammo than Portugese who are a declining power. They recruit mercenaries from Scandanavian & Germany when manpower was needed. King thinks he is hiring mercenaries to get rid of Portugese. The dutch, despite being forced to be fair for ianability to wage continuous war, never showed any concern for the Sinhala welfare. They were merchants who intended to stay on as long as possible, using military power and humble or cunning tactics to maintain trade monopoly. The dutch would never mix with the locals the way the portugese did. They just used Lanka with meanness of false respect and humbleness which fooled the Sinhalese who judged people on what they say.
Dedicated to All young men and their families who lost their future irrecoverably and hopelessly while trying to defend our heritage and freedom, justice and fairness for ALL. Please do learn the lessons from the history. Otherwise all these sacrifices will be a waste.

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